What is Refined Glycerine
Refined Glycerine, also known as glycerol or glycerin, is a simple straight-chain sugar alcohol that has three hydroxyl groups, which results in water solubility and hygroscopicity of glycerin. This is a clear, colorless, odorless, high boiling, viscous liquid. It is naturally sweet and has low toxicity. It has a typical melting point and boiling point of 17.8°C and 290°C, respectively. Refined Glycerine density is 1.26 g/cm³. It comes from petrochemical feedstock. Due to its low toxicity and environmental friendliness, it is used in many applications such as food, medicine, cosmetics, and personal care items. It is also a versatile and valuable product from biodiesel production. Each year, about 950,000 tons are produced in the United States and Europe.
Glycerine is obtained from the saponification or transesterification of triglycerides. Triglycerides are esters of glycerol with long-chain carboxylic acids, which are found in fats and oils. The by-products formed are salts of long-chain carboxylic acids. Crude glycerine also comes from the production of biodiesel through the transesterification process. Triglycerides react with alcohols, such as ethanol with small amounts of bases, as a catalyst to give esters of fatty acids and glycerol.
Refined Glycerine Applications
Glycerol is used in medical, pharmaceutical, and personal care preparations, often as a means of improving smoothness, providing lubrication, and as a humectant. Ichthyosis and xerosis have been relieved by the topical use of glycerin. Besides, there is still much more about the use of this refined glycerine.
Glycerine is used in foods and beverages to keep the food moist, make it sweet, serve as a solvent, and be used as a food preservative. It is used as a filler in commercial low-fat foods such as cookies and a thickening agent in food products such as liqueurs. Additionally, glycerine may be used as a sugar substitute. Bacteria do not feed glycerine, hence it does not cause cavities.
Glycerine is used in the production of nitroglycerine for explosives and propellants. Moreover, it can produce allyl iodide with the addition of phosphorus and iodine. They are commonly applied as polymers, preservatives, organometallic catalysts, and pharmaceuticals, etc.
Glycerine can form strong hydrogen bonds with water, so glycerol-water bonds are superior to water-water hydrogen bonds. Therefore, the formation of ice is hindered unless the temperature is very low. This antifreeze is used in automobiles because glycerine has low toxicity despite being restored by ethylene glycol.
Glycerine is used to improve smoothness and lubricity and maintain moisture. It is widely used in a variety of medical and pharmaceutical products, such as cough syrup and personal care products, such as mouthwashes. It is also a component of glycerine soap, which adds essential oils for fragrance. Because of the water-retaining properties of glycerine, soap is used by people with sensitive skin.