Animal Fats Based - Refined Glycerin
Animal Fats Based Grade
1. Recovery of fat
First of all, animal fats are collected from slaughterhouses. The fat tissue from animal parts is cooked. The elevated temperature ensures the fat to be released in liquid state and promotes cell rupture. On the other hand, an alternative method requires partial heating and the mechanical rupture of the fat tissue to release fat.
The degumming process of animals is the removal of dissolved phosphatides through centrifugation. Water is added to the oil that allows the precipitation of phosphatides. The newly formed precipitate is heavier as phosphatides readily absorb water. The centrifugation process separates the heavy phosphatides from the oil phase to the water phase.
Bleaching of oil is required to release unwanted pigment and other oxidizing agents that may alter the appearance of the product. Bleaching is performed by adding charcoal or earth clay. The existing pigment from the oil will be adsorbed by the charcoal. On the other hand, an additional method by chemical reaction is required for edible oils (oxidation and reduction reaction)
The adsorbed oils are further treated for scent and foul odour removal. Steam distillation is utilized to remove any volatile impurities that contribute to the unpleasant smell. Steam distillation makes use of the non volatile animal fat to remove any aldehydes, ketones, and other compounds that are classified as an impurity. In a distillation chamber, high pressure is injected under vacuum conditions around 180-250 degrees centigrade. The non-volatile triglyceride remains unchanged while volatile impurities cascade upwards and are removed from the animal fat.
The animal fat is decomposed by hydrolysis reaction under high temperature and pressure. The process utilizes water to break down the chains of triglycerides into glycerol/glycerine and chains of fatty acid. In this step, glycerine becomes available for extraction; however, further refining is required for the newly made glycerine to be called refined glycerine.
The mixture of glycerine and chain of fatty acids is further refined by a series of separation processes. The oil mixture is distilled to separate the fatty acids from the desired glycerine. The distillation column is heated to promote evaporation of both glycerol and fatty acid. Glycerine has lower boiling point; therefore, glycerine will evaporate readily at a certain range temperature whereas the chains of fatty acid will remain as liquid.
1. Pharmaceuticals Industry
Glycerin is widely used as a raw material for pharmaceutical purposes. The chemical compound has contributed to heart medication, suppositories, cough remedies, and anesthetics. In addition, glycerin has laxative properties that are able to improve digested food to flow smoothly along the lining of the stomach.
In cosmetic products, glycerin retains water to maintain product softness, creaminess, and storage life. Glycerin’s low vapor pressure allows the compound to persist when moisture is continuously released into the surroundings. In athletics, glycerin drink is used to help water hydration in athletes due to the loss during exercise.
2. Industrial Applications
Glycerin has been recently researched to provide an intermediary product for fuel additives. Fuel additives are used to decrease harmful emissions by utilizing oxygenated glycerin derivative fuel additives. On the other hand, the lubricating properties of glycerin are used to enhance machine performance and reduce friction. The friction reduction allows heat to dissipate and prevents machinery from overheating. In addition, the economic viability of utilizing glycerin is another reason for being used as chemical intermediate and industrial applications.